COLLECTION OF OLD RUSSIAN CADASTRAL MAPS AND DOCUMENTS
(full listing in chronological order)

Admiralty Forest Dept. (up to 1802)
Topographic map of Nizhegorodskii uezd.
Russian title: Ландкарта Нижегородского уезда. Описывал и рисовал навигатор С. Орликов. В Российский атлас напечатал Иван Кирилов.
Date: ~ 1733
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 495. (Gnucheva, No 259)

One of the first regional maps designed by Petrine geodesists in the framework of the general program of mapping and geographical exploration of Russia, worked out in 1720s - a part of Petrine reforms in order to raise efficiency of the central government and to establish strict control under the regions. In the “General Regulations” - Petrine Administrative Statute - effective state administration was stated to be the main purpose of mapping and geographical exploration of the Empire. The map shows Nizhegorodsky uezd. In the table there is a list of towns and villages of the Nizhegorodsky uezd.

This manuscript map was published in 1734 in the first Russian Atlas of the Russian Empire compiled by I. K. Kirilov (1689 - 1737), cartographer and statesman, Russian Senate ober-secretary since 1727.

Map of Navy oak forests in Nizhegorodskii uezd.
Russian title: Ландкарта Нижегородского уезду часть. Специальная карта лесов с указанием корабельных дубовых участков.
Date: ~ 1736.
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 496. (Gnucheva, No 260)

Includes a part of the previous map. Sample of one of the maps carried out within the programm of Navy forest cadastre carried out by the Admiralty. While in the previous decade the first attempts were carried out to study and evaluate forest resources for the immediate needs of the Baltic Navy supply, and a general programme of forest maping had been prepared, systematic mapping of Russian forests was started in 1730s. In 1732ty the first countrywide instructions on forest preservation had been issued by Senate. Navy geodesists from Admiralty and Senate officials, whose activities were tightly connected with Geographic Department of Academy of Sciences, worked for this programme.

Senate order to the Archangel city Admiralty office on the appointment of the land-surveyor Zubov to evaluate cembra pine forest and to map Yarenskii uezd of Vologodskaia gubernia.
Russian title: Об отправке геодезиста Зубова для описания кедрового леса и составления карты Яренского уезда Вологодской губернии.
Date: 1738 - 1739.
Location: Petersburg, Russian State Navy Archive (RGA VMF), Class 138, Inventory 1, file 68, p. 3 (back).

Excerpt from description of Yarenskii uezd, Vologodskaia gubernia forest, compiled by land-surveyor Zubov.
Without title.
Date: 1738 - 1739.
Location: Petersburg, Russian State Navy Archive (RGA VMF), Class 138, Inventory 1, file 68, p. 10 (back).

Text describes the location of Navy woods along the small rivers in Yarenskii uezd.

Data on preserved forests, timber mills and their location.
Russian title: Сведения о заповедных лесах, лесопильных мельницах и их местонахождении.
Date: 1740.
Location: Petersburg, Russian State Navy Archive (RGA VMF), Class 138, Inventory 1, file 137, p. 254 (back).

Exibited excrept is the deteiled description of Novgorod gubernia, Vodskaia piatinatimber. While the previous document only locates the woods, this one contains calculations and measurements of the trees along each river as well as measurements of the rivers' width (to evaluate opportunities for timber floating). This is an obvious progress of forest cadastre technology.

Map of  mast forests in Arzamasskii uezd. (in French)
Original title: Province d'Arsamase par Orlikov.
Date: 1st half of the XVIII century.
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 423. (Gnucheva, No 187)

Belongs to the same corps of Admiralty forest maps as Map of Navy oak forests in Nizhegorodskii uezd.

Map of Navy pine and oak forests in Brianskii uezd.
Russian title: Ландкарта, показующая опись Брянского уезда годным на корабельное строение сосновым и дубовым лесам.
Date: 1766.
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 438. (Gnucheva, No 203)

Belongs to the same corps of maps as the previous two. Though designed as an Admiralty forest map, it shows not only Navy pine and oak forests, but also soil distribution. It correponds to the general state programm of geographic exploration of the country, a 'state' and 'resource' paradigm of Russian academic geography of 18th century.

Map of forest defense line from Smolensk to Chernigov, established in 1706 (First half of 18th century).
Russian title: Ландкарта "засечной черты" устроенной в 1706 г. от г. Смоленска до Чернигова.
Date: 1st half of the XVIII century.
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 658. (Gnucheva, No 571)

Shows a large forest region protecting the south-eastern Russian frontier. There are several maps of this kind known in the archives. Forests served as natural fortresses against invasions from the Crimea and Poland since Middle Ages. The government did every possible effort to protect these forests from exploitation and to keep them unsuitable for the enemy cavalry troops' maneuver. Only when southern frontier moved to the steppe at the end of 18th century forest defense lines lost their importance. This map contains a fascinating error: confusion of the cardinal points. North (nord) is written at the bottom and south (zuid) – at the top, though the geographical situation is shown properly. This may point at an old Russian geographical drawing of XVII century as a source for the map.

Map of Novopavlovskii plant's forests. (Altai,1760)
Russian title: Чертеж, сочиненной 1770 г. около Новопавловскогг завода лежащим по реке Касмале, также по рекам Обе, Ине и Чумышу сосновым лесам.
Date: 1770.
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 665. (Gnucheva, No 487)

Shows Altai region forests enclosed to Novopavlovskii iron plant. Forests were used to prepare charcoal for metallurgy at that time. This category of forests belonged to Berg-collegium (Ministry of Mines and Plants). Shows the plan of annual forest rotation (very small parcels under letters A, B, C, D along the rivers).

Forest map of Novgorodskaia gubernia Obonezhskaia piatina.
Russian title: Карта Новгородской губернии Обонежской пятины Олонецкого и часть Каргопольского уездов годных на корабельное и прочих судов строение описи флота лейтенанта Мордвинова
Date: 1762
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Russian National Library, Petersburg. Hermitage collection file 610.
Map from the magnificent Admiralty manuscript Atlas of forests ... of 1782. This atlas had been prepared by the Admiralty Headquarters and submitted to the Russian Court (I am slowly working on the story of this Atlas). Records of forest statistics in the table correspond to the No on the map locating these forests.

The original was VERY large and scanned image was 12 Mb big! That is why it's demo version in not so impressive due to the low resolution.

Atlas of plans for Tver province. Overview list.
Russian title: Атлас планам Тверской губернии. Сводный лист.
Date: 1798
Location: Petersburg, Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA), Class 380, inventory 32, file 54.

Atlas of plans for Tver province. Forest parcel in Kaliazinsky uezd. Plan from the previous atlas.
Russian title: Атлас планам Тверской губернии. Лесная дача в Калязинском уезде (план и статистика).
Date: 1798
Location: Petersburg, Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA), Class 380, inventory 32, file 54. p. 6.

Ministry of Finances Forest dept.
Forest resources for the Baltic Navy supply.
Russian title: Ведомость 1я. В каких именно губерниях заготавливаются леса к Санкт-Петербургскому Адмиралтейству для балтийских флотов.
Date: ~ 1807.
Location: Petersburg, Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA), Class 1594, inventory 1, file 561. p. 79.
Official statistics of the Ministry of Finances, depicting forested areas and quantity of trees in provinces (gubernia) from which the Baltic Navy was supplied.

Commutation of forests -  comparative statistics.
Russian title: Сравнительная ведомость. О дубовых лесах в Казанской и в окрестных ей других губерниях по мнению капитана Подколзина - инспектора при заготовлении корабельных лесов с имеющимися при департаменте сведениями.
Date: 10 April 1806.
Location: Petersburg, Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA), Class 1594, inventory 1, file 561. pp. 119 (back) - 120.
Commutation of forests from the Admiralty to the Ministry of Finances management. Comparative Admiralty and Ministry of Finances forest statistics.

Ministry of State Property. (after 1837)
Forest plan of the Crown estate Kovaliovshizna. Printed.
Russian title: Лесохозяйственный план казенного имения Ковалевщизна.
Date: 1841.
Location: Location: Petersburg, Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA), Class 387, inventory 1, file 499.
Standard forest plan prepared by Forest Dept. of Ministry of State Property. Plan was sent to all forestries over the country together with the printed sample of forest statistics and instructions (see documents 1, 2, 3).

A Map to Revise State of Forests and Forestry in Russia.
Russian title: Карта для обозрения лесов и лесной промышленности в России.
Date: 1849
Location: Russian State Library
Considered to be the first printed forest map of the European Russia. Compiled by Forest Department of the Ministry of State Property. This map is the most known result of a series of efforts on forest cartography and statistics of Forest Dept. (see previous map and documents related to it). The map is reproduced from Russian language article of M. Tsvetkov (First Forest Map of European Russia. Minutes of Forest Institute, Moscow, 1950), [Russian: Первая карта лесов Европейской России и некоторые рукописные карты лесов. Труды института леса. 5, 1950].

Atlas of Forest Statistics by M. Karyshev. St.Petersburg, 1885. In 18 maps. (in progress, content is still missing).
Russian title: Атлас по лесной статистике. Н. Карышев, доцент С.-Петербургского лесного института. С.-Петербург, изд. А.Ф. Девриена. 1885.
Date: 1885.
Location: published versions may be found in Map Departments of main libraries such as Russian State Library (former Lenin Library) in Moscow, and, probably, in Russian National Library (former Saltykov-Shedrin Library) in Petersburg, Library of Academy of Sciences in Petersburg and others.
Shows official data of the Ministry of State Property on the distribution of forests in European Russia, state, common and private forests, taxation, prices etc.

Forest map of the northern part of Pereslavl'-Zalesskii uezd.
Russian title: Карта лесных дач, расположенных к северу, северо-востоку и северо-западу от г. Переславля в районе Плещеевского и Борисовского лесничеств Переславского уезда Владимирской губернии.
Date: 1920.
Location: my personal belonging.
Sample of forest map having very much in common with modern forest cadastre. Forestries are shown in colour, forest parcels - in numbers. Such maps are accompanied by stand data evaluation - tabular statistics of forest quiality in each parcel.
 

Zemstvo (Russian regional elective administration) cadastral surveys. (1880 ties)

Geologic map of Korcheva uezd (district), Tver regional zemstvo
Hypsometry map of Korcheva uezd (district), Tver regional zemstvo
Soil map of Korcheva uezd (district), Tver regional zemstvo

Soil map of Pereslavl uezd (district), Vladimir regional zemstvo


Endnotes
Collection of the XVIII-th century maps of Dept. of manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg, was described and catalogued in Gnucheva V. F. Geograficheskii departament Akademii Nauk XVIII v. [Geographic Department of Academy of Sciences in XVIII century], Moscow - Leningrad, 1946. In brackets are references from this printed catalogue.

Uezd - administrative districts in Russia till 1917.
Gubernia - administrative province in Russia since Petrine administrative reform till 1917, each includes several uezds.
Piatina - administrative district in pre-Petrine North-Western (Novgorod) Russia.