XVIII century maps
(1733 - 1770)

Admiralty Forest Dept.

Topographic map of Nizhegorodskii uezd.
Russian title: Ландкарта Нижегородского уезда. Описывал и рисовал навигатор С. Орликов. В Российский атлас напечатал Иван Кирилов.
Date: ~ 1733
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 495. (Gnucheva, No 259)

One of the first regional maps designed by Petrine geodesists in the framework of the general program of mapping and geographical exploration of Russia, worked out in 1720s - a part of Petrine reforms in order to raise efficiency of the central government and to establish strict control under the regions. In the “General Regulations” - Petrine Administrative Statute - effective state administration was stated to be the main purpose of mapping and geographical exploration of the Empire. The map shows Nizhegorodsky uezd. In the table there is a list of towns and villages of the Nizhegorodsky uezd.

This manuscript map was published in 1734 in the first Russian Atlas of the Russian Empire compiled by I. K. Kirilov (1689 - 1737), cartographer and statesman, Russian Senate ober-secretary since 1727.

Map of Navy oak forests in Nizhegorodskii uezd.
Russian title: Ландкарта Нижегородского уезду часть. Специальная карта лесов с указанием корабельных дубовых участков.
Date: ~ 1736.
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 496. (Gnucheva, No 260)

Includes a part of the previous map. Sample of one of the maps carried out within the programm of Navy forest cadastre carried out by the Admiralty. While in the previous decade the first attempts were carried out to study and evaluate forest resources for the immediate needs of the Baltic Navy supply, and a general programme of forest maping had been prepared, systematic mapping of Russian forests was started in 1730s. In 1732ty the first countrywide instructions on forest preservation had been issued by Senate. Navy geodesists from Admiralty and Senate officials, whose activities were tightly connected with Geographic Department of Academy of Sciences, worked for this programme.

Map of  mast forests in Arzamasskii uezd. (in French)
Original French title: Province d'Arsamase par Orlikov.
Date: 1st half of the XVIII century.
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 423. (Gnucheva, No 187)

Belongs to the same corps of Admiralty forest maps as Map of Navy oak forests in Nizhegorodskii uezd.

Map of Navy pine and oak forests in Brianskii uezd.
Russian title: Ландкарта, показующая опись Брянского уезда годным на корабельное строение сосновым и дубовым лесам.
Date: 1766.
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 438. (Gnucheva, No 203)

Belongs to the same corps of maps as the previous two. Though designed as an Admiralty forest map, it shows not only Navy pine and oak forests, but also soil distribution. It correponds to the general state programm of geographic exploration of the country, a 'state' and 'resource' paradigm of Russian academic geography of 18th century.

Map of forest defense line from Smolensk to Chernigov, established in 1706 (First half of 18th century).
Russian title: Ландкарта "засечной черты" устроенной в 1706 г. от г. Смоленска до Чернигова.
Date: 1st half of the XVIII century.
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 658. (Gnucheva, No 571)

 Shows a large forest region protecting the south-eastern Russian frontier. There are several maps of this kind known in the archives. Forests served as natural fortresses against invasions from the Crimea and Poland since Middle Ages. The government did every possible effort to protect these forests from exploitation and to keep them unsuitable for the enemy cavalry troops' maneuver. Only when southern frontier moved to the steppe at the end of 18th century forest defense lines lost their importance. This map contains a fascinating error: confusion of the cardinal points. North (nord) is written at the bottom and south (zuid) – at the top, though the geographical situation is shown properly. This may point at an old Russian geographical drawing of XVII century as a source for the map.

Map of Novopavlovskii plant's forests. (Altai,1760)
Russian title: Чертеж, сочиненной 1770 г. около Новопавловскогг завода лежащим по реке Касмале, также по рекам Обе, Ине и Чумышу сосновым лесам.
Date: 1770.
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Library of Academy of Sciences, Petersburg. Class 35, file 665. (Gnucheva, No 487)

Shows Altai region forests enclosed to Novopavlovskii iron plant. Forests were used to prepare charcoal for metallurgy at that time. This category of forests belonged to Berg-collegium (Ministry of Mines and Plants). Shows the plan of annual forest rotation (very small parcels under letters A, B, C, D along the rivers).

Forest map of Novgorodskaia gubernia Obonezhskaia piatina.
Russian title: Карта Новгородской губернии Обонежской пятины Олонецкого и часть Каргопольского уездов годных на корабельное и прочих судов строение описи флота лейтенанта Мордвинова
Date: 1762
Location: Dept. of Manuscripts, Russian National Library, Petersburg. Hermitage collection file 610.
Map from the magnificent Admiralty manuscript Atlas of forests ... of 1782. This atlas had been prepared by the Admiralty Headquarters and submitted to the Russian Court (I am slowly working on the story of this Atlas). Records of forest statistics in the table correspond to the No on the map locating these forests.

The original was VERY large and scanned image was 12 Mb big! That is why it's demo version in not so impressive due to the low resolution.